Dental fillings are a common procedure for patients of all ages.
Here, we’ll try to answer some of the more common questions about dental fillings, including addressing questions about safety, the various materials involved, and how and when they’re used.
What is a dental filling?
Essentially, a filling is a way of restoring a damaged part of a tooth and thus giving that tooth its normal function and shape. Dental fillings work by replacing damaged enamel with a filler material often called an amalgam. This can, in turn, prevent further damage and further infection by closing off spaces and gaps which would otherwise allow bacteria to enter.
How do I know if I need a filling?
While tooth pain or sensitivity should be examined by your dentist and might indicate you need a filling, only your dentist can tell you for sure. They’ll examine your teeth carefully during each office visit, and may take x-rays for greater detail. They’ll then assess the health of each tooth, look for damage, and decide if a filling is the right solution.
Are dental fillings safe?
The Food and Drug Administration and other organizations of the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) continue to investigate the safety of amalgams used in dental restorations (fillings). However, no valid scientific evidence has shown amalgams cause harm to patients with dental restorations, except in rare cases of allergic reactions. So yes, dental fillings are in general safe and the right filling will be safe for you.
What sorts of materials are used?
Advances in modern dental materials and techniques increasingly offer new ways to create more pleasing, natural-looking smiles. Researchers are continuing their often decades-long work developing aesthetic materials, such as ceramic and plastic compounds that mimic the appearance of natural teeth. As a result, dentists and patients today have several choices when it comes to selecting materials used to repair missing, worn, damaged or decayed teeth.
The advent of these new materials has not eliminated the usefulness of more traditional dental restoratives, which include gold, base metal alloys and dental amalgam. The strength and durability of traditional dental materials continue to make them useful for situations where restored teeth must withstand extreme forces that result from chewing, such as in the back of the mouth.
Alternatives to amalgam, such as cast gold restorations, porcelain, and composite resins are more expensive. Gold and porcelain restorations take longer to make and can require two appointments. Composite resins, or white fillings, are aesthetically appealing but require a longer time to place.
Here’s a look at some of the more common kinds of alternatives to silver amalgam:
Composite fillings – Composite fillings are a mixture of acrylic resin and finely ground glasslike particles that produce a tooth-colored restoration. Composite fillings provide good durability and resistance to fracture in small-to-mid size restorations that need to withstand moderate chewing pressure. Less tooth structure is removed when the dentist prepares the tooth, and this may result in a smaller filling than that of an amalgam. Composites can also be “bonded” or adhesively held in a cavity, often allowing the dentist to make a more conservative repair to the tooth. In teeth where chewing loads are high, composite fillings are less resistant to wear than silver amalgams. It also takes longer to place a composite filling.
Ionomers – Glass ionomers are tooth-colored materials made of a mixture of acrylic acids and fine glass powders that are used to fill cavities, particularly those on the root surfaces of teeth. Glass ionomers can release a small amount of fluoride that helps patients who are at high risk for decay. Glass ionomers are primarily used as small fillings in areas that need not withstand heavy chewing pressure. Because they have a low resistance to fracture, glass ionomers are mostly used in small non-load bearing fillings (those between the teeth) or on the roots of teeth. Resin ionomers also are made from glass fillers with acrylic acids and acrylic resin. They also are used for non-load bearing fillings (between the teeth) and they have low to moderate resistance to fracture. Ionomers experience high wear when placed on chewing surfaces. Both glass and resin ionomers mimic natural tooth color but lack the natural translucency of enamel. Both types are well tolerated by patients with only rare occurrences of allergic response.
Porcelain (ceramic) dental materials – All-porcelain (ceramic) dental materials include porcelain, ceramic or glasslike fillings and crowns. They are used as inlays, onlays, crowns and aesthetic veneers. A veneer is a very thin shell of porcelain that can replace or cover part of the enamel of the tooth. All-porcelain (ceramic) restorations are particularly desirable because their color and translucency mimic natural tooth enamel. All-porcelain restorations require a minimum of two visits and possibly more. The restorations are prone to fracture when placed under tension or on impact. Their strength depends on an adequate thickness of porcelain and the ability to be bonded to the underlying tooth. They are highly resistant to wear but the porcelain can quickly wear opposing teeth if the porcelain surface becomes rough.
What happens when I get a filling?
Again, it’s a routine and easy dental procedure most of the time. If your dentist thinks you need a filling, they’ll first remove the decayed or damaged material and clear the cavity thoroughly. Then they’ll select the right material for the job and fill the cavity as discussed above.